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Innovations

Using algae and bacteria for wastewater treatment

April 1, 2015
AlgaeIndustryMagazine.com

Caitlyn Butler, a University of Massachusetts professor of environmental engineering, won a grant of $500,000 to pursue her pioneering research on special “Algal-Sludge Granules.” Photo: Kevin Gutting

Caitlyn Butler, a University of Massachusetts professor of environmental engineering, won a grant of $500,000 to pursue her pioneering research on special “Algal-Sludge Granules.” Photo: Kevin Gutting

The National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Program (CAREER) recently awarded Assistant Professor Caitlyn Butler of the Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) Department at the University of Massachusetts Amherst $500,000. The prize was given to pursue her pioneering research on special “Algal-Sludge Granules,” which can produce their own oxygen during wastewater treatment, reportedly cutting electricity consumption in half, while also cleansing wastewater.

Butler’s CAREER project, which will study the relationship between algae and bacteria in Algal-Sludge Granules, dovetails with additional research she is conducting with CEE Associate Professor Chul Park. Their collaborative research is in pursuit of a three-way fix for wastewater treatment: to eliminate harmful organic compounds and nitrogen from wastewater, slash the huge energy bill for wastewater treatment, and even make green biofuels as a byproduct.

The Algal-Sludge Granule treatment process employs aggregate biofilms of eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic bacteria to achieve organics and nitrogen removal from wastewater. The Algal-Sludge Granules are oxygenic, thus eliminating the requirements for aeration. They are large aggregates (0.5-1 cm in diameter) that settle easily. The proposed process would occupy a smaller treatment footprint than many algae-based wastewater treatment systems.

In that context, Butler’s NSF CAREER project seeks to understand the fundamental relationships between the algae and bacteria in the Algal-Sludge Granules, further enhance treatment efficiency, and demonstrate the resilience of the process.

Butler’s NSF research will demonstrate the mechanisms by which the algae and bacteria aggregate to form the granule and the structural integrity of different granule morphologies and how physical characteristics relate to performance and microbial ecology.

As Butler explains, “One thing we are doing is studying how these granules function under conditions of stress. For example, in wastewater treatment facilities, there are seasonal fluctuations in the wastewater stream. Will these fluctuations change the ecology of the granules? Will the granules behave the way we would like them to? So we want to find out how these granules function under different forms of potential stress.”

Butler’s hypothesis is that the granules are very adaptable, so that even though the content of wastewater is very different at various times of the year, she believes they can adjust to those changes. “So we’re going to try and mimic those conditions in the lab and see what happens,” says Butler. “We will use a simple kinetic model and recreate those wastewater conditions in the lab and use micro-sensors to measure the oxygen concentration and other characteristics in the granules and thereby measure the gradient of change.”

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