Click here for more information about Liqofluxphenometrics515R1
Visit!Evodos Separation Technology


Multi-purpose tool developed for cyanobacteria

September 23, 2015

MSU scientists have built a molecular Swiss Army knife that they say makes biofuels and other green chemical production from algae more viable.

MSU scientists have built a molecular “Swiss Army knife” that they say makes biofuels and other green chemical production from algae more viable. Photo by G.L. Kohuth

Researchers at Michigan State University have built a molecular super protein tool that streamlines the molecular machinery of cyanobacteria making, they say, biofuels and other green chemical production from these organisms more viable.

In the current issue of Plant Cell, they describe how they fabricated a synthetic protein that not only improves the assembly of the carbon-fixing factory of cyanobacteria, but also provides a proof of concept for a device that could potentially improve plant photosynthesis or be used to install new metabolic pathways in bacteria.

“The multifunctional protein we’ve built can be compared to a Swiss Army knife,” said Raul Gonzalez-Esquer, MSU doctoral researcher and the paper’s lead author. “From known, existing parts, we’ve built a new protein that does several essential functions.”

For this research, Gonzalez-Esquer worked with Cheryl Kerfeld, the Hannah Distinguished Professor of Structural Bioengineering in the Michigan State University-DOE Plant Research Lab, and Tyler Shubitowski, MSU undergraduate student. Dr. Kerfield’s lab studies bacterial microcompartments, or BMCs. These are self-assembling cellular organs that perform myriad metabolic functions, and in a sense, they are molecular factories with many different pieces of machinery.

They modernized the factory by updating the carboxysome, a particularly complex BMC that requires a series of protein-protein interactions involving at least six gene products to form a metabolic core that takes CO2 out of the atmosphere and converts it into sugar. To streamline this process, the team created a hybrid protein in cyanobacteria – organisms that have many potential uses for making green chemicals or biofuels.

The new protein replaces four gene products, yet still supports photosynthesis. Reducing the number of genes needed to build carboxysomes should facilitate the transfer of carboxysomes into plants, they say.

This installation should help plants’ ability to fix carbon dioxide. Improving their capacity to remove CO2 from the atmosphere makes it a win-win, Dr. Gonzalez-Esquer said.

“It’s comparable to making coffee. Rather than getting an oven to roast the coffee beans, a grinder to process them and a brewing machine, we’ve built a single coffeemaker where it all happens in one place,” he said. “The new tool takes raw material and produces the finished product with a smaller investment.”

This proof of concept also shows that BMCs can be broken down to the sum of their parts, ones that can be exchanged. Since they are responsible for many diverse metabolic functions, BMCs have enormous potential for bioengineering, said Dr. Kerfeld, who also is an affiliate of the Berkeley National Laboratory’s Physical Biosciences Division.

“We’ve shown that we can greatly simplify the construction of these factories,” she said. “We can now potentially redesign other naturally occurring factories or dream up new ones for metabolic processes we’d like to install in bacteria.”

While the improved organisms excel at photosynthesis in a lab setting, they’re ill prepared to compete with other bacteria. Because they were stripped of four genes, they’re not as flexible as their natural cousins. “Cyanobacteria have adapted to live in ponds that are drenched by sun, blanketed by shade, frozen solid in the winter, not to mention the other organisms with which they have to compete to survive,” Dr. Kerfeld said. “We’ve restricted ours and their ability to grow; they no longer have all of the tools to compete, much less dominate, in the natural environment.”

More Like This…

HOME A.I.M. Archives

Copyright ©2010-2017 All rights reserved. Permission required to reprint this article in its entirety. Must include copyright statement and live hyperlinks. Contact A.I.M. accepts unsolicited manuscripts for consideration, and takes no responsibility for the validity of claims made in submitted editorial.

Visit our 2017 International Reader’s Poll Platinum Sponsors

bigelow mbiolp_link sfcc

From The A.I.M. Archives

— Refresh Page for More Choices
Global Algae Innovations, with headquarters in San Diego, California, and cultivation/production facilities in Lihue, Hawaii, have introduced a new algae harvesting syste...
The Energy Department (DOE) has announced the selection of six projects for up to $12.9 million in federal funding, entitled, “Project Definition for Pilot- and Demonstra...
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft reports in Science Daily that two algae species survived 16 months on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) despite extreme temper...
Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment in the feed industry. According to the 2017 Alltech Global Feed Survey, the aquaculture industry experienced a 12 percent incre...
Dan Wood, at the University of Connecticut, writes that assistant extension educator of marine aquaculture at UConn’s Avery Point Campus, Anoushka Concepcion, spoke about...
Essen, Germany-based Evonik, and Royal DSM, headquartered in Kaiseraugst, Switzerland, have announced their intention to establish a joint venture for omega-3 fatty acid ...